[singlepic id=2279 w=320 h=240 float=center]We are grateful to the Captain, Steve Cruickshank, and the Warrau and Arawak people of Orealla, Corentyne River, for sharing this document with the JCCSS Alumni Association.


1.—SURADANI. A hard wood much used for corials or canoes also for timbers, rails, the naves and felloes of wheels, and for planks and covering boards of Colony craft. It will square from 14 to 20 inches, and from 30 to 40 feet long. Its rich brown colour would adapt it well for furniture. The tree is plentiful, and of large size.


2.—BOEAHOVA. A tree of considerable size, but the timber is little known and seldom used.


3.—HOUBABALLI. A light brownish wood, beautifully variegated with black and brown streaks; easily worked, takes a fine polish, and makes beautiful furniture and cabinet work of every description. It may be had from 15 to 20 inches square, and from 40 to 70 feet long. The tree grows to the height of about 100 feet, and is by no means scarce in some localities.


4.—SEEADA, or CEEEDA. A hard light-coloured wood. Squares from 12 to 16 inches.


5.—CABACALLI. This tree grows tall and straight, and will square from 12 to 18 inches for 40 or 50 feet in length. The wood is heavy and close-grained, and is considered very little inferior to Silverballi for boat-building, as, like that wood, it possesses a bitter principle which protects it against the attacks of worms, and renders it durable uder water. It must, however, be fastened with copper nails. Of the branches, timbers and knees for every description of craft are made, which are quite as lasting as those of Mora.


6.—CEETTI, KEETTY, or BASTAED SILVEEBALLI. A light and dm-able wood. It is sometimes used for planking vessels, but chiefly for inside boarding. It is common, and may be obtained from 12 to 20 inches square.


7.—SIMAEUBA (Simaruha officinalis, Dec, Simariiba amara, Auhl.). This tree grows on hill sides to the height of 80 feet, branching and somewhat crooked; its wood resembles white pine in colour and quality. It is light and easily worked, and may be had in boards 20 to 40 feet long and from 24 to 30 inches wide. It is much used for partitions and other inside work of houses, but will not bear exposure to the weather.


8.—DUCA, or DOOKA. A hard wood of large size, squaring from 12 to 18 inches. The tree yields a large quantity of gum.


9.—AEUMATA, or AEMATA. This wood is seldom found more than 25 to 35 feet in length, and 7 inches in diameter. It is a hard strong wood, excellent for planking vessels, but is chiefly used for the rafters of cottages. The heart is pretty, and is occasionally used for cabinet work.


10._WADADUEI, or MONKEY POT {Lecyfliis grandiflora, Auhl). This tree is plentiful throughout the Colony. It grows tall, straight, and to a large size. The wood is hard, close-grained, and handsome. It is used for furniture, and makes good staves for hogsheads. Height of the tree, 106 feet ; diameter of the trunk, 30 inches.


11.—KUEAKAI, or CUEAKI. This tree grows to an enormous size, and yields a resin similar in properties to that of Hyawa, Section C, No. 8. The wood is described as the most suitable in the Colony for deals, to be proof against dry rot, and, when not exposed to the weather, exceedingly durable. It is light, open-grained, and highly odorous, and is much used for corials and canoes. It is plentiful in all parts of the Colony, in low swampy places


12.—MANIBALLI, or CANDLE-WOOD {Apocynaceae ?). This tree grows very straight; the timber can be had from 30 to 40 feet long, and from 8 to 10 inches in diameter. It is hard, close, and even-grained, and is excellent for the frames of houses. It is from a variety of this tree that the Indians jirocure the wax (Karman or Cari-mani) which they use in fastening their arrow-heads, hooks, &c. See Section C, No. 7.


13.—DACANABALLI. A hard wood of large size, squaring 20 inches and upwards. ll.-SIPIEI, BIBIBU, or GEEENHEART yellow variety {Nectandra Bochv!, Schomh.). This tree is very abundant within 100 miles of the coast region, and its timber, squaring from 18 to 24 inches, may be had without a knot from 60 to 70 feet long. It is a fine even-grained hard wood, well adapted for planking of vessels, house-frames, wharves, bridges, and other purposes, where great strength and dui-ability are required. As it is unsurpassed in resistance to tensile and compressive strains, it is admirable for kelsons and for ship timbers. Its excellence is now acknowledged at Lloyd's, where, along with Mora (No. 20) it ranks as one of the eight first-class woods for ship building. From the bark and seeds the well-known "Bibirine " is obtained.


15.—HURUWASSA, or SOAP-WOOD (Sajnndus Saponaria, Lin.). Both the root and bark as well as the seeds are used by the Indians as a substitute for soap). The wood is hard and tough, and may be obtained 20 inches square and upwards.


16.—WAMAEA, or BEOWN EBONY. A hard, cross-grained wood, not apt to split, and therefore well adapted for ship-building. It is also one of the handsomest woods of the Colony, and would make beautiful furniture. Sir E. Schombourg describes it as a scarce tree, attaining a great height. The only part used is the heart, which is dark-brown and often streaked. Its hardness and weight cause it to be preferred by the Indians for their war-clubs. It may be had from 6 to 12 inches square, and from 20 to 40 feet long.


17.—SIEUABALLI, or SILVERBALLI, yellow variety {Nectandra or Oreodapline, Sp.?). This tree grows to a considerable size, but is then often hollow. It will, however, square sound from 10 to 14 inches, and often from 40 to 50 feet long. The wood is lighter than water, and contains a bitter principle, which resists the attacks of worms. Hence it is much used in the Colony for the outside planking of vessels and boats. It is also used for masts and booms. There are four varieties or species of this tree, distinguished as black, brown, yellow, and white Silverballi, possessing the same properties, but of these the white is least esteemed.


18.—HOEOWAEY, or HUEUWAEY. A hard wood, squaring from 12 to 16 inches.


19.—SIMIEI, or LOCUST TEEE {HpnencBa Courbaril, Lin.). This tree, which is abundant in the Colony, often attains the height of 60 or 80 feet before it throws out a branch, and has a diameter of 8 to 9 feet. The wood is close-grained, hard, and compact, of a fine bro^Mi, streaked with veins, and takes a beautiful polish, which recommends it for furniture. As it does not split or warp, it is well adapted for mill-timbers and enginebeds. A good deal of it is sent to England to be used as trenails in planking vessels, and in beams and planks for fitting up steam engines. It has also been found to answer well for the frames, wheels, &c., of spinning machines. The Indians and Negroes are fond of the farinaceous saccharine pulp enveloping the seeds. The Indians make "wood-skins " or canoes, of the bark. The tree yields what is supposed to be the Gum Animi of commerce.


20.—MORA {Mora excelsa, BentJi). This, the most majestic tree of the forests of Guiana, towers above every other, often attaining a height of from 120 to 150 feet, and is frequently seen rising to the height of GO feet without a branch. When of that length it will square 18 or 20 inches, but is seldom then sound throughout. The wood is extremely tough, close, and cross-grained, so that it is difficult to sj)lit, which renders it peculiarly adapted for shipbuilding. The trunk makes admirable keels, timbers, and beams ; and the branches, having a natural crookedness of growth, are unsurpassed as knees. Were men-of- war ceiled with this wood, little mischief would be occasioned by splinters during action. In most respects it is superior to oak, particularly in its exemption from dry rot. This, as well as Greenheart (No. 14), ranks as one of the eight first-class woods at Lloyd's for shipbuilding. It is abundant along the rivers of the coast region, and extends as far south as lat. 3° N. It grows luxuriantly on sand reefs, and on tracts of barren clay known as " Mora clay," a soil so sterile as not to admit of profitable culture. Sir E. Schomburgk, referring to this tree, states :—" In all my former travels in Guiana, I have nowhere seen trees of this description so gigantic as on the land adjoining the Barima at its upper course. Indeed, frequently when the boat rounded some point which the river made in its course, and a long reach was before, these majestic trees appeared in the background as hillocks clothed with vegetation, until a nearer approach showed our mistake, and we found that what we considered to have been a hillock was a single tree, rising to the enormous height of 130 to 150 feet, forming by itself, as it were, a forest of vegetation. The importance of the Mora in naval architecture is now fully recognized in Great Britain, and a new export trade has been opened to the Colony. On the upper Barima this tree is so abundant, and grows to such a size, that the whole British navy might be reconstructed merely from the trees which line its banks, a circumstance well worth consideration, for the river being navigable to vessels of 12 feet draught, the craft intended for the transport of the timber might load at the very spot where the trees are cut down." The bark of the Mora is used for tanning ; and in times of scarcity the seeds grated and mixed with decayed Wallaba wood, are eaten by the Indians. The seeds also are said to be beneficial in cases of diarrhoea or dysentery.


21.—MAHOGANY {Hczmatoxxjlon Campechiannm). From Plantation Bath, Berbice.




23.—HOUBABALLI, Black. Contributed by Committee op Corbe-SPONDEKCE. A dark-coloured variety of No. 3, for furniture and cabinet work.


24.—SIEUABALLI, or SILVEEBALLI, Bro^v-n variety. ( Ocotea, Sp. ?) A hard wood, similar in quality to the yellow variety. Height of the tree, 90 feet ; diameter of the tnmk, 18 inches. It is not very plentiful. Contributed by Andrew Htjxter.


25. DUCALIBALLI. This tree is of large size, but not plentiful. The timber may be had 40 feet long, but seldom more than 20 inches in diameter. It is a deep red, close-grained wood, more even and compact than Mahogany, and takes a high polish ; it is in great repute for cabinet and turning work. It resembles, or perhaps is identical with, the Brazilian Beef-wood.


26.—CAEABA, or GEAB-WOOT> (Carapa guianensis, Auhl). This tree is plentiful, grows tall and straight, and may be cut from 40 to 60 feet in length, with a square of 14 or 16 inches. The wood is light, and, as it takes a high polish, makes excellent furniture. It is also much used for floors, partitions, and doors in dwelling-liouses. Masts and spars are formed of it, and it is sometimes employed for sugar hogsheads, and even shingles, as it splits freely and smoothly. There are two varieties, red and white. The seeds yield " Crab Oil," and the bark is useful for tanning, so that this tree ranks among the most useful in the Colony.


27.—HYAWABALLI {Omphalohium Lamherti, Dec). This tree is not plentiful. Its timber, known as Zebra-wood, is in great request for fui-nitm-e, on account of its beauty, and is easily worked. The tree is of large size, but the heart seldom squares more than 10 or 12 inches.


28.—BUSH-EOPE. From the Demerara Eiver.


29.—LAUREL OIL TREE {Oreodaphne Opifera, Nees.?). From the lower part of the Orinoco Eiver, where the tree is abundant. It yields the celebrated Laurel Oil (see Section C, 3), which is obtained by tapping the tree to its centre. The wood is hard, and when recently cut highly odoriferous. Contributed by W. C. McClintock, who states that he commissioned an Indian to ascend the River Orinoco as far as the village of Zacapana, about 400 miles from Mr. McClintock's post on the Pomeroon, to procure this specimen. The Indian unfortunately did not obtain either flowers or seeds. The seeds are used medicinally, and with surprising effect in cases of obstinate fevers. The oil, it is added by Mr. McClintock, is a certain cure for liver complaint.


30.—MAEIWAYANA, or PURPLEHEART {Copaifera pnUlflora and hradeata, Benth.), called by the Arawaks " Com'abaril." Eather a scarce tree in the coast regions, being found chiefly in the mountainous tracts above the cataracts. There are several varieties or species, but all much alike, possessing great strength and elasticity, and used for fui-nitm'e, on account both of their colour and durability. Used also for mortar-beds, being superior to any other wood in sustaining the shocks produced by the discharge of artillery. Sir E, Schombuegk was assured by Colonel Moody, E.E., that the Black Greenheart and the Purpleheart were the only woods that stood the test as mortar-beds at tlio siege of Fort Bourbon, in the Island of Martinique. One variety (C. hradcata) is very common in the savannas near tlie Eivers Rupununi, Takutu, and Branco, but this is of small size compared with the others. It is used for windmill-shafts, rollers, and machinery. If better known, it would be likely to take tbe place of Rosewood in the ornamental work of the cabinet-maker. It is of tbe bark of tbis tree, when freshly cut down, that the Indians chiefly make their " woodskins," or canoes, some of which are large enough to carry 20 or 25 persons in smooth water.


31.—BUEUEH, BULLY, or BULLET TREE {Sapota Blulleri, Mlq. ?). This tree is found throughout the Colony, but most abundantly in Berbice. It is of the largest size, often 6 feet in diameter, and having the trunk destitute of branches nearly to the top. The leaves, branches, and trunk, produce a whitish milk, forming the gum now known as " Balata " (Section 0, Nos. 4, 4.a, 5), the properties of which appear to be intermediate between Caoutchouc and Gutta-percha. The fruit is of the size of a coffee berry, very delicious, and resembling the Sapodilla. The wood is dark brown, variegated with small white specks, and is extremely solid, heavy, close-grained, and durable. It is chiefly used in house-framing, for posts, beams, and floors ; and, as the weather has but little influence on it, is esteemed the most valuable timber for the arms, shafts, and framework of windmills. It squares from 20 to 30 inches, and may be obtained from 30 to 60 feet long. In salt or brackish water it is sure to be attacked by the worms. A tree cut down by ScHOMBURGK, near the Cuyimi, measured 67 feet to the first branches, and thence to the top 49 feet—in all, 116 feet. The upper portions of the trunk and branches are manufactured into wheel-spokes, palings, &c. A decoction of the bark is used, in the form of clyster, and is said to be very efficacious in a disease known to persons residing in the interior by the name of "Quata" ("Kaina-Kuku," Arawaak name), which is very prevalent among the Indian tribes at certain seasons of the year, and more especially at the commencement of the dry season in September.


32.—ETOORIE, or ITURI WALLABA. Has similar properties to Wallaba, but is of smaller size and finer grain. 33.—TATABOO, or TATABA. The tree is of largo size, growing to the height of about 60 feet. The wood is hard and tough, and well adapted for mill-timbers and planks, also for shipbuilding, gun-carriages, coffee -stampers, &c.


34._CUEUBEEANDA, or BITTER-WOOD. Very hard, and said to be valuable for ship or boat building. The wood is light-coloured, and has a bitter taste. It is plentiful in the Essequebo and Massaruni Eivers. It ^squares from 14 to 20 inches.


35.—^WALLABA {Eperua falcata, AubL). This wood is of a deep red coloui", and is hard and heavy, but splits freely and smoothly, and is much used for shingles, staves, palings, posts, house-frames, &c. It is impregnated with a resinous oil, which makes it very durable both in and out of water. A roof well shingled with this wood will last more than 40 years. The tree is very abundant throughout the Colony, growing generally on the banks of rivers. It may be cut 30 or 40 feet long, and 15 to 20 inches square. The tree yields an oil and a gum resin, having medicinal properties.


36._CUAMAEA, or TONKA {Diptertjx odorafa, Willd.). This tree is not very plentiful in the Colony. The timber may be had from 40 to 50 feet long, and 18 to 20 inches square. It is hard, tough, and durable in an eminent degree, and it is said that a piece one inch square, and of a given length, will bear 100 lbs. more weight than any other timber in Gmana of the same dimensions. It is, therefore, peculiarly adapted for any purpose where resistance to great pressure is desired. It is used for shafts, mill-wheels, and cogs. This tree yields the well-known Tonka Bean. The bark and the leaves contain an aromatic oil.


37.—TUEANIEA, TOUEANEEO, or BASTAED BULLY TEEE {Humirium Jlorihunclum, Mart.). This tree is very abundant, and grows to a large size. It will square 25 inches from 40 to 50 feet in length. It is a hard, even-grained wood of a cedar brown colour, and is used for framing timber, spokes, &c., and is generally applicable to the same purposes as Bully Tree, which it much resembles, except that it is not durable when exposed to the weather. The fruit is delicious. 38.—HACKIA. This wood is also known in the Colony as "Lignum Vitae." The tree producing it attains a height of from 30 to 60 feet, squaring 16 to 18 inches. It is a valuable hard wood, used for mill cogs and shafts, and occasionally for furniture.